SPANISH

Spanish or Castilian (lengua castellana) is a Romance language of the Indo- European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin spoken on the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. Today, it is a global language with about 474.7 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain.[1] Spanish is the official language of 20 countries. It is the world’s second-most spoken native language after Mandarin Chinese;[5][6] the world’s fourth most spoken language overall after English, Mandarin Chinese, and Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu); and the world’s most widely spoken Romance language. The country with the largest population of native speakers is Mexico.

PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE

Portuguese is a Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. It is an official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe,[6] while having co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, and Macau. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as “Lusophone” (lusófono). As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese speakers is also found around the world. Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, and has kept some Celtic phonology in its lexicon.

TURKISH LANGUAGE

Turkish (Türkçe [ˈ tyɾ ctʃ e] ‘Turkish of Turkey is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers. It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers also exist in Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia,[16] Greece,[17] Cyprus, other parts of Europe, the Caucasus, and some parts of Central Asia, Iraq, and Syria. Cyprus has requested the European Union to add Turkish as an official language, as one of the two official languages of Cyprus.[18] Turkish is the 13th most spoken language in the world. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk’s Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet

JAPONIC LANGUAGES

Japonic or Japanese–Ryukyuan, sometimes also Japanic is a language family comprising Japanese, spoken in the main islands of Japan, and the Ryukyuan languages, spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. The family is universally accepted by linguists, and significant progress has been made in reconstructing the proto-language, Proto-Japonic.[2] The reconstruction implies a split between all dialects of Japanese and all Ryukyuan varieties, probably before the 7th century. The Hachijō language, spoken on the Izu Islands, is also included, but its position within the family is unclear. Most scholars believe that Japonic was brought to the Japanese archipelago from the Korean peninsula with the Yayoi culture during the 1st millennium BC. There is some fragmentary evidence suggesting that Japonic languages may still have been spoken in central and southern parts of the Korean peninsula (see Peninsular Japonic) in the early centuries AD.

RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

Russian is an East Slavic language, spoken primarily in Russia. It is the native language of the Russians and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages,[i] and is also a part of the larger Balto- Slavic languages. It was the de facto and de jure official language of the former Soviet Union.Russian has remained an official language in independent Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is still commonly used as a lingua franca in Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to a lesser extent in the Baltic states and Israel. Russian has over 258 million total speakers worldwide.[30] It is the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe,as well as the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia. It is the world’s seventh-most spoken language by number of native speakers, and the world’s eighth-most spoken language by total number of speakers.Russian is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station, as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

MERICO LANGUAGE

Merico or Americo-Liberian (or the informal colloquial name “American”) is an English-based creole language spoken until recently in Liberia by Americo- Liberians, descendants of original settlers, freed slaves, and African Americans who emigrated from the United States between 1821 and the 1870s. It is distinguished from Liberian Kreyol and from Kru, and may be connected to Gullah and Jamaican Creole.[S1] The original settlers numbered 19,000 in 1860.[1] By 1975 the language was partly decreolized, restricted to informal settings.

FRENCH LANGUAGE

French (Standard French: Français [fdasɛ] or langue franchise [la˜g fda˜sɛː z]) is a Romance language of the Ind-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d’oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to the French colonial empire, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

ITALIAN LANGUAGE

Italian (italiano [itaˈ ljaː no] ⓘor lingua italiana [ˈ liŋgwa itaˈ ljaː na]) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin.[6][7][8][9] Spoken by about 85 million people (2022), Italian is an official language in Italy, San Marino, Switzerland (Ticino and the Grisons), and is the primary language of Vatican City. It has official minority status in Croatia and in some areas of Slovenian Istria.

KOREAN LANGUAGE

The Korean names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in both South Korea and North Korea. The English word “Korean” is derived from Goryeo, which is thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations. Korean people in the former USSR refer to themselves as Koryo-saram and/or Koryo- in (literally, “Koryo/Goryeo person(s)”), and call the language Koryo-mal’. Some older English sources also use the spelling “Corea” to refer to the nation, and its inflected form for the language, culture and people, “Korea” becoming more popular in the late 1800s.[12]